Here is a thread I have created to help identify the more common axles. Please keep in mind not all the info may be 100% accurate but I did my best. I am open to and info or suggestions that anyone may have.
The Model 30, with a 7 1/8-inch-diameter ring gear, was the standard front differential in some 1972-75 CJ-5s and all 1975-and-later CJ-5s and CJ-7s. It is still used in the front of Cherokees, Comanches, Grand Cherokees and Wranglers.
This axle, with a 7.56-inch ring gear. The Dana 35 can be found in the rear of Cherokees, Comanches, Grand Cherokees and many of the the Wranglers.
Found on the ZJ, XJ, and I believe the WJ Cherokees. Its also found on some Dodges as well.
All domestic manufacturers have used Dana axles, and the 44, with its 8 1/2-inch ring gear, is likely to be a step up on anything smaller than a 1/2-ton. It was standard under the front of pre-1976 Chevy Blazers and 1/2-tons, solid front-axled F-150s and Broncos, some full size Dodge Rams, Jeep J-10/J-20s, Grand Wagoneers and TJ & JK Rubicons.
Ring Gear Diameter is 8 1/2" and was found in some Jeep ZJ and WJ Grand Cherokees. The Dana 44 a has an aluminum center section. This axle is often swapped out for a stronger Iron axle.
The Ford-version Dana Twin-Traction-Beam. It's standard in the front of any TTB-equipped Ford. The axle is kinda like a solid axle and IFS combined.
A Dana 60 looks similar to a Dana 44 just bigger. It can be found in many 3/4 & 1 ton trucks. Dodge and Chevy both have a passenger side drop front axle, and Ford has a High Pinion driver side drop front axle. Earlier Ford Dana 60s where kingpin 60s and then became Ball joint style around 1992. Rear Dana 60s can found in many earlier Fords and Jeeps.
Here is some really good info on Dana 60shttp://www.pirate4x4.com/tech/billavist ... index.html
Ball Joint D60
Almost identical in appearance to a Dana 60, the Dana 70 can be found in some Dodge and Ford trucks. The large 10.54-inch ring gear diameter will tolerate much torque, and is suitable for diesel power and/or big tires. I best way to tell the difference between a 60 and a 70 is the 70 has a bigger housing, and the ears on the center section a more webbed.
The 8.8-inch debuted in 1983 Broncos and F-150s, and is now found also in 4.0-liter Rangers and Explorers/Navajos. It is easily distinguished from a 9-inch by having a cover on the back. 8.8 is a great upgrade for the Dana 35 and can be found with 4.10 gears and disc brakes stock in some Ford Explorers.
The venerable Ford 9-inch is both readily available and strong. Later models have bigger axle tubes and stronger housings. It was standard under 1966-88 F-150s and Broncos. It also came on many vans and the Lincoln Versailles.
Ford's biggest axle comes with semi-floating shafts in 1983-and-newer F-250s, and as a full-floater in F-250HDs and F-350s. Applications are similar to the big GM 14-bolt and the Dana 70.
The 10-bolt replaced the Dana 44 that was used in the front of some pre-1977 GMs. It can also be found in the back of most last 70s and newer 1/2-tons as well as the Blazers, Jimmys, and S10s. There where a few types and sizes of the 10 bolt the larger where called Corporate 10 bolts.
GM CORPORATE 14-BOLT
With a 10 1/2-inch-diameter ring gear, the biggest 14-bolt GM rearend looks much like a Dana 70, and is but a few thousandths of an inch shorter in ring gear diameter. This axle is commonly used with big engines and/or overly large tires. It was used under 1973-87 3/4-tons.
AMC MODEL 20
Used in 1976-and-later Jeep CJs, the Model 20 rearend is both strong and weak. An 8 3/4-inch-diameter ring gear provides strength; weaknesses are the housing itself and the axle-to-hub retaining method. Converting to one-piece axles or full-floaters gives this axle better stamina.
There are a few sizes and widths of the Toyota axles. Fronts where found on Mid 80s and earlier pickups and 4 Runners. They are similar to a Ford 9" just smaller.
These are the popular 2.5 ton Rockwell military axles. They are found on the larger military trucks.